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          奧林康OERLIKON帶極堆焊技術的應用



          ???????????????????????????????????????????????? 奧林康OERLIKON帶極堆焊技術的應用
          ?????? 在承受一定載荷的低碳鋼或者低合金表面堆焊一層耐蝕層是一種經濟、實用的方式。因而,帶極堆焊廣泛應用于化工、石化和核工業領域。本文主要討論兩種帶極堆焊方法,并介紹這項技術的應用。
          ????? 在化工、石化行業中大型設備內壁容易遭受腐蝕或者磨損,所以需要堆焊耐蝕層或耐磨層。埋弧帶極堆焊和電渣帶極堆焊都適合于平面或曲面堆焊,比如換熱器管板和壓力容器內壁。埋弧帶極堆焊(SAW)應用極為頻繁,但在高效生產和對稀釋率有限制要求的情況下,通常建議采用電渣帶極堆焊(ESW)。
          ?? 埋弧帶極堆焊
          ?? 自1960年中期之后,埋弧帶極堆焊開始大范圍使用,焊帶寬度有60X0.5MM 和90X0.5MM.采用直流反接,工件和焊帶之間形成電弧。熔池上的焊劑可以保護焊接熔池并且焊縫表面成形良好。
          ? 電渣帶極堆焊
          ? 電渣堆焊是在埋弧帶極堆焊的基礎上發展起來的,具有較高的可靠的熔敷效率。電渣堆焊和焊接過程中的電阻有關,是利用導電熔渣的電阻熱熔化對含材料。電渣槽中產生的熱量熔化伸進電渣槽的母材和焊帶。
          ?? 同埋弧帶極堆焊相比,熔融的電渣良好的熱導率避免了電弧飛濺。焊劑的成份對導熱率,固化和粘性等有影響。為了提高大電流下的熔敷層厚度,焊劑堿度和氟化物含量通常很高,使其具有較高的導電性和低的粘性。
          ?? 電渣槽的溫度大約是2300℃,形成了薄層的導電液態熔渣,并能熱輻射。大量的熱量積累,采用水冷堆焊機頭是非常必要的。由于電流很大,所以電渣帶極機頭比埋弧帶極堆焊機頭重很多。
          ?? 電渣帶極堆焊的特點:
          ●同埋弧焊相比,具有如下特點:
          ●熔敷率提高了60%到80%;
          ●只有一半稀釋到母材中,這是由于熔深很淺(大約10%--15%的稀釋率);
          ●焊接電壓低(24V—26V);
          電流和電流密度大(60毫米寬焊帶通過電流為1000-1250A,相應的電流密度為33—42A/MM2),尤其是高速焊劑允許電流超過2000A,相應的電流密度為70A/MM2)
          ●提高了焊接速度(50—200%),導致覆蓋面積提高
          ●熱輸入量相當
          ●焊劑燒損低(大約0.4—0.5KG/KG)
          ●ESW焊焊縫金屬的固話速率很低,有利于氣泡逸出減少氣孔缺陷。氧氣能夠從熔融的金屬表面逸出到表面;堆焊層金屬表面相當干凈,從冶金學角度看,減少了熱裂紋和腐蝕傾向。
          ?
          ??? 工業生產實際應用中,產品焊縫表面相對基體金屬來說,具有較高的熔敷率和低的稀釋率是非常重要的。埋弧帶極堆焊已經廣泛應用于大面積堆焊多年。然而,電渣堆焊技術正在焊接行業占主導地位。

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